Parallel Manipulators, New Developments

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If shoulder motors 26 and 28 hold the five-bar linkage in one position, then as waist assembly wrist joint is pushed or pulled, the plane of five-bar linkage 30 rotates about waist link This accomplishes the same action as performed by waist motor 16, in its position colinear with waist link 18 in FIGS. Note that 2-DOF waist assembly elbow joint and 3-DOF waist assembly wrist joint in waist driving assembly permit five-bar assembly 30 to move in its own plane without undue restriction imposed by waist driving assembly At a constant rotation angle of waist link 18, movement of waist assembly wrist joint in the plane of five-bar 30 causes joints and to bend in approximately equal angles of opposite sign, around axes that are normal to the plane.

At the same time, the angle of waist assembly proximal link to base 12 about an axis which is parallel to the drive shaft of waist assembly motor , and the angle of elbow joint about an axis which is parallel to the drive shaft of waist assembly motor , change in approximately equal angles of opposite sign, in order to accommodate any changes in the overall distance between waist assembly motor and waist assembly wrist joint Waist driving assembly operates in an identical fashion to waist driving assembly As the drive shaft is rotated, proximal link pushes and pulls on waist assembly distal link , the two links being attached by two degree of freedom elbow joint The distal link then pushes or pulls on three degree of freedom waist assembly wrist joint If shoulder motors 66 and 68 hold the five-bar linkage in one position, then as waist assembly wrist joint is pushed or pulled, the plane of five-bar linkage 80 rotates about its waist link This accomplishes the same action as performed by waist motor 56, in its position colinear with waist link 58 in FIGS.

This is similar to the configuration of FIG. By removing one redundant actuator, the assembly can still be moved and positioned in six degrees of freedom, albeit without some of the advantages of a redundantly actuated mechanism. The distance between universal joints 46 find 96 can therefore be varied, placing pressure or tension on rotational mechanism The action of rotational mechanism is to rotate in one direction when the axis is placed under pressure, or squeezed, and to rotate in the other direction when the axis is under tension.

Parallel mechanisms have some impressive advantages and some impressive disadvantages over serial structures. They have better load capacity, stiffness, precision and inertia characteristics. These characteristics are due to the multiple arms which spread the load, and the normal practice of mounting actuators on or close to the base, rather than having them located at the joints and therefore carried by the linkage mechanism.

On the other hand, they are known to have complex forward kinematics and smaller non-singular workspaces. Typically, the inverse kinematics are easily worked out in a closed form solution, but the forward kinematics remain a challenge for numerical methods. The workspace limitation becomes apparent when one considers the effect of rotating the platform about an axis normal to the base.

At the "home" position, a large rotation angle can be obtained, but this angle is reduced as one nears the edge of the translational workspace. The singular configurations are encountered when a linkage inverts from its normal angle of operation, with the elbow joint bending the "wrong" way, for example.

The prior art falls under three main categories--Stewart platforms and their variants, triple five-bar supported platforms, and dual support devices. Stewart platforms and the triple five-bar devices will be covered in the next few paragraphs. The present invention falls under the dual support category.

The only other member of this category that is known to the authors is Iwata's pen-based haptic device. In Iwata's device, the platform a haptic pen is supported by two serial manipulators. Moreover, the folding five-bar mechanism has the added advantage of excellent isotropy within its workspace. In Iwata's device, in order to yaw the the platform by means of the screw mechanism, the distance between the universal joints connected to the supporting serial robots must be changed.

At mechanism configurations where the pen aligns with the planes of the supporting elbow manipulators, Iwata's mechanism is singular. In the present invention, the use of a separate actuator to provide the yawing motion is proposed. Thus seven actuators, not six, are used to provide 6-DOF motion of the platform. Due to actuator redundancy, configurations for which the platform yaw axis aligns with the planes of the five bar linkages are not singular. Therefore, with a seventh actuator for the platform yaw motion, the proposed mechanism has a substantially larger non-singular workspace.

At the outset of the project, three candidates were compared in terms of their complexity and workspace--a prismatically actuated "Stewart" platform Fischter, E. Robotics Res. There could be a significant inertial contribution from the wrist actuator, but this depends on the yawing torque requirements of the application. In some applications, such as the use of the platform as a haptic pen, very little or even a passive yaw degree of freedom may be sufficient, thus a light motor or just a bearing can be used.

It should be noted that the drawback of the additional yawing actuator mass is partially offset by having two fewer base to platform linkages. By actuating and sensing the folding or "waist" axis of each five-bar linkage, a platform singularity is eliminated and the kinematics of the platform are highly simplified. The singularity that is eliminated occurs when the attachment points of the platform to the five bar linkages lie in either one of the planes of the five-bar linkages. In the following, a comparison between the workspaces of the three candidates are presented.

For a fair comparison, the mechanisms were sized to have similar footprints and favorable geometries. A and Chapel, J. IEEE Int. Next, parameters for the Triple Pantograph platform were chosen to make it similar to the Stewart platform. The platform remains identical but the base could not be made triangular as a high degree of linkage collisions would occur in practice. The footprint is therefore kept similar but a is approximately halved. Its alternative architecture is its only distinction. The resulting workspaces are shown in FIG.

In conclusion, existing six degree of freedom parallel platform robots, such as the Stewart Platform and a similar design which uses three five bar linkages, suffer from a number of drawbacks:. It is also possible to implement a tendon transmission system for the serial actuator to avoid carrying the mass of an actuator on the end effector.

Alternatively, actuated extensible struts or auxiliary five-bar linkages could be used to give the platform a limited rotation, if this is called for by an application. Note that this is distinguished from the Triple Pantograph by the use of actuated folding axes on the dual support structures, which give the device many of the advantages just listed. Accordingly, it should be clear that the above geometrical constraints and description outline the concepts of a novel six degree of freedom manipulator having the following advantages over previous concepts:.

[] Calibration of 3-d.o.f. Translational Parallel Manipulators Using Leg Observations

The device could be used in any application where stiffness and precision are of utmost importance and a parallel platform type robot is preferred. It could be used in virtual reality systems which incorporate robotic hand controllers or motion simulators.

Some or all of the actuators could be replaced with locking joints to create a multi-degree of freedom positioning table, or with passive joints to create a multi-degree of freedom position sensor. It can be used as an assembly robot or be made at a small scale for use as a six degree of freedom wrist for a serial robot.

It could be made at a large scale for use in aircraft, car, trucking or other heavy-equipment simulators. Other actuator concepts beyond those illustrated are possible. For example, it is possible to remove the platform actuator altogether, when orientation of the platform is not necessary.

Alternatively, one can implement a tendon transmission system for the platform actuator to avoid carrying the mass of an actuator on the end effector. By installing the platform motor on the base and setting pulley wheels into the wrist, elbow and shoulder joints of one of the five-bar linkages, the action of the platform motor can be communicated efficiently to the platform by the use of tendons.

Auxiliary actuated linkages or extensible links could also be used to give limited tilt to the platform. Another variation on actuation of the alternative embodiments shown in FIGS. Accordingly, the scope of the invention should be determined not by the embodiments illustrated, but by the appended claims and their legal equivalents.

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Year of fee payment : 4. Year of fee payment : 8. Year of fee payment : A six degree of freedom structure forming a robotic manipulator, consisting of two five-bar linkages 30 and 80 set on rotatable base linkages 18 and 58 ; the output points 44 and 94 of the five-bar linkages 30 and 80 are attached to a rigid payload platform 48 by universal joints 46 and 96 , respectively.

Each linkage 30 and 80 on its rotatable bass can position its output point in three degrees of freedom, but since the two five-bar linkages 30 and 80 are tied together at the platform 48 , five degree of freedom motion of the platform 48 results--three degrees of freedom in translation, and two of rotation. A seventh motor , mounted for example on one of the five bar linkages, provides power to rotate the platform about the axis defined by the two universal joints 46 and The rotational torque is coupled through one of the universal joints 46 or TECHNICAL FIELD This invention relates to robotic manipulators in general and in particular to such manipulators having all but one drive actuator attached to the parts of the linkage near the base so as to impart high resolution and high stiffness motion to a platform in six degrees of freedom.

Stewart Platform One of the oldest mechanisms for platform control is the Stewart platform Stewart D. South-West view of platform and wrist assembly. South-East view of platform and wrist assembly. Diagram of Stewart Platform prior art. Diagram of Triple Pantograph Platform prior art.

Development of a New High Speed Cable-Based Planar Parallel Manipulator

Workspace of Stewart platform. Workspace of Triple Pantograph platform. Workspace of Triple Pantograph platform with U-joint constraint. Singular configuration 1 of five-bar linkages. Singular configuration 2 of five-bar linkages. Singular configuration 3 of five-bar linkages. Singular configuration 4 of five-bar linkages.

Comparison with Prior Art Parallel mechanisms have some impressive advantages and some impressive disadvantages over serial structures.

Parallel Manipulators New Developments 2008

In conclusion, existing six degree of freedom parallel platform robots, such as the Stewart Platform and a similar design which uses three five bar linkages, suffer from a number of drawbacks: restricted nonsingular workspaces, large numbers of design parameters making geometric optimization difficult , high potential for link collisions at certain positions, and difficult computation of platform position from the actuator positions or forward kinematics.

The new design has the following advantages: a reduced number of linkages between thin platform and base, and therefore fewer passive joints, resulting in less backlash and friction. Summary, Ramifications, and Scope Accordingly, it should be clear that the above geometrical constraints and description outline the concepts of a novel six degree of freedom manipulator having the following advantages over previous concepts: a reduced number of linkages between the platform and base, and therefore fewer passive joints, resulting in less backlash and friction.

We claim: 1. The manipulator as defined in claim 1 wherein said drive motor means comprises a pair of motors one for driving each of said waist links. USA en. USB2 en. Device for manipulation of the angular position of an object relative to a fixed structure. WOA1 en. A parallel kinematic manipulator and a method of operating the same, including pairwise actuators. System and method for laser based computed tomography and magnetic resonance registration. Mechanism for univocally linking a shiftable and orientable platform to a support structure using articulated arms.

Device for manipulating the angular position of an object relative to a fixed structure. Object e. CNC en. Aircraft component attitude adjusting assembly system based on parallel mechanism with six degrees of freedom and debugging method. Branch three-leg five-DOF degree of freedom parallel mechanism containing double-compound drive. A hybrid serial-parallel linkage based six degrees of freedom robotic manipulator.

Three-dimensional translation and one-dimensional rotation parallel mechanism containing 5R closed-loop sub-chains. Parallel surgical manipulator capable of horizontally moving three-dimensionally and rotating one-dimensionally. Manipulator comprising a fixed base and a movable platform, with four motor-driven chains of articulated links. Parallel mechanism containing prr kinematic pair open loop subchain and prrrr kinematic pair closed loop subchain.

Parallel mechanism containing rrrrr and pprrr kinematic pair closed-loop sub-chains. Parallel mechanism containing prr kinematic pair open loop subchain and pprrr kinematic pair closed loop subchain.

Development of a new 3-DOF parallel manipulator for minimally invasive surgery.

Parallel mechanism containing prr open-loop sub-chain and pprpr closed-loop sub-chain. Double closed loop subchain parallel connection mechanism with kinematic pair combination as rprrr-prrrp. Parallel mechanism comprising r r r r r closed-loop subchain and p p r p r closed-loop subchain. Parallel mechanism containing kinematic pair prr open-loop subchain and rprpr kinematic pair closed-loop subchain. Parallel mechanism containing prr open-loop subchain and prrrp closed-loop subchain. Method for forming redundantly-actuated mechanism and actuator force distribution system. Three-dimensional-movement two-dimensional-rotation fully-isotropic hybrid robot mechanism.

Solving method for six-degree-of-freedom series robot inverse kinematics solution.

Robotics 2 U1 (Kinematics) S6 (Parallel Manipulators) P1 (Introduction)

Few-acting point five-degree-of-freedom parallel mechanism including independent double-output composite universal joint. Inverse kinematic solution for multi-joint link mechanism, and teaching-data creating device using the inverse kinematic solution. Positioning device continuous in azimuth and elevation using multiple linear drives. Six-degree-of-freedom parallel "minimanipulator" with three inextensible limbs.

Simplified and symmetrical five-bar linkage driver for manipulating a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Parallel "minimanipulator" with three inextensible limbs. Arai t. Arai T. Behi F. Cleary K. Hollerbach J. Hudgens J. Iwata H. Long G. Millman, P. Sacramento, California, pp.

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