Statecharts. A Visual Formalism for Complex Systems

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These limitations which have been shown to be present in state machine models are, the complexity of the model and the inability to model of concurrent systems. Statecharts overcome the limitations of state machines by providing a construct known as the and-state.

Statecharts: A Visual Formalism for Complex Systems Jeff Peng Model-based Design Lab.

In the Mealy-Moore state machine model, states were an or-state; they were either in one state or another, never in two states concurrently. The and-state overcomes this limitation of or-states by allowing the state chart to have substates of a higher level state active at the same time.

The state machine model could be decomposed into lower states, however these lower states were still sequential not contemporaneous, in the state chart modelling system proposed by Hare these substates may be concurrent. Each of these substates model an aspect of the object of which they are a part.

Modeling a discrete event system using statecharts - IEEE Conference Publication

These substates are also allowed to communicate with each other in well-defined manners. These communication and synchronisation methods have been enumerated by Douglass The third enumerated point introduces the concept of a guard.


This is a construct introduced to Statecharts which adds additional features not available in a state machine model, conditional event responses. To overcome the second limitation of conventional state machine modelling, that of a quickly escalating level of complexity as the number of states increased, orthogonal regions are all used. These regions allow the modeller to detail highly complex specification logic in a condensed manner.

A brief overview of statecharts has now been provided, showing how the statechart method of system modelling overcomes the difficulties that may be experienced when attempting to model real-time systems using state machines. CSP is another commonly used method of specifying the behaviour of modelled systems. A fundamental aspect of CSP as defined by Hoare involves the synchronisation of concurrent processes on their inputs and outputs.

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The synchronisation only occurs when two processes wishing to synchronise to send a message, are both in a sending and receiving state respectively. Statecharts also make provision for the synchronisation of states or processes with the functionality provided by guards.

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These guards are placed at the transition from one state to another. The transition may only occur when the transition event occurs and the condition on the guard is met, a conditional event response.

This condition may be that another orthogonal region needs to be in a particular state. Thus these two separate states may be synchronised. Both techniques are based upon mathematical foundations. This enables a degree of formalism to be inherent in designs produced according to these two methods, formal reasoning is therefore possible with both of these practices.

CSP and statecharts do provide similar functionality in many areas; this is to be expected due to their predominant use in developing real time systems. There are some differences within each of their respective paradigms.

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My love letter to XState and statecharts ♥

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Statechart with memory state and gates

Online Spaghetti Demystified - untangling the role of visual communication in online marketing -It is time to take. Introduction to Complex System Engineering -. We also discuss some practical experience that was gained over the last three years in applying the statechart formalism to the specification of a particularly complex system.

What is a Complex System?

Documents: Advanced Search Include Citations. Citations: - 56 self. Abstract We present a broad extension of the conventional formalism of state machines and state diagrams, that is relevant to the specification and design of complex discrete-event systems, such as multi-computer real-time systems, communication protocols and digital control units.